Last-mile delivery for groceries has shown increased popularity in recent years. An estimated 33% of the U.S. national grocery market now offers online delivery services, so this investigation into last-mile delivery reflects the probable outcome for a large share of grocery-type consumer packages.

The objective of this investigation was to map and fully characterize the process that packaged-goods experience from the moment they are picked up from a shelf in a grocery store to when they arrive at a consumer’s doorstep. An additional goal was the identification and evaluation of the potential hazards that may occur during this process. In addition, this study investigated the effects of delivery size, grocery stacking, and overtime delivery. Proper accounting of these factors during research helped to evaluate whether current packaging standards are sufficient to guarantee acceptable conditions for last-mile delivery.