RESEARCH

Research Mission:

All research conducted at the Center’s labs for our sponsors is based on the graduate education mission of Virginia Tech.

The Center’s research team is focusing on developing new ways to optimize distribution packaging systems and unit loads by using the physical interaction between the components. Quantifying and improving the sustainability of distribution packages is at the fore front of our research mission. The Center has been developing life cycle inventories and conducting life cycle analysis on pallets and distribution packaging systems. Smart and connected packaging will revolutionize the distribution packaging sector thus the Center is currently conducting feasibility studies and supply chain studies using the latest technology in smart and connected packaging.

The Center maintains an extensive research database that includes articles on subjects such as: the performance of driven fasteners, observations of damage frequency, and damage severity levels occurring in pallets. Our pallet data, in particular, is vital to researchers developing reliability-based models of pallets, containers, and other such related structures.

The Center researches every aspect of primary and secondary packaging, shipping, and material handling systems. We are also constantly striving to meet and exceed our industry affiliates’ expectations in regards to new areas of research such as electronic sensor tracking and sustainable packaging. Any questions or issues your company has, our team will find the answers!

Most projects are conducted through our Industrial Affiliate Membership Program; however, Sponsored Research projects are also available for more individualized research projects.

Current Research Projects

Alina Mejias (M.S)

"Investigation Into the Effect of Pallet Design on the Operating Cost of the Supply Chain."

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Description: Pallets, packaging and the material handling system must work together to ensure stability in the supply chain. Currently each part of the system is designed and manufactured independently which can cause equipment slowdown, shutdown, and unit load failure. Currently, research projects focus on the performance of corrugated boxes because they represent 80% of packaging materials in unit loads. We will be looking into what areas of the supply chain are affected by using low quality pallets. We will determine a method to financially quantify all of the issues caused by using these low quality pallets. The outcome of this research will allow us to develop a model tying pallets to the operating costs of the supply chain. 

Objectives: The proposed project will identify where low quality pallets adversely influence material handling and storage systems and will financially quantify these adverse effects. We will then develop a model to show how to save costs and increase efficiency by utilizing properly designed, high quality pallets.

Dorina Bugledits (Ph.D)

"Investigation Into the Types of Unit Loads Carried by Pallets."

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Description: Currently the load carrying capacity of a pallet is determined by assuming that the load will be distributed evenly across the pallet. Most current pallet testing is set up using this assumption. However, this is not always the case in real-world pallet use. The weight on a pallet is actually distributed based on the type, size, and shape of the packages making up the unit load. These changes in the distribution of weight is called “load bridging” and this can significantly impact the overall load carrying capacity of a pallet.

Objectives: The proposed project will investigate different types of packages/unit loads and their effects on the load carrying capacity of pallets. This will be done through research of current literature, surveying the marketplace to determine the frequency of different unit loads, and studying the most common unit loads for their overall effect.

Steven Morrissette (M.S.)

"Investigation into the Distribution of Stresses on the Top Surface of Block Class Pallets as a Function of Package Size and Pallet Stiffness."

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Description: The load carrying capacity of most pallets is very likely to be significantly higher then what is determined through current testing methods. The effects of package size and distribution on load bridging are not included in most current tests and pallets are overdesigned when these factors aren’t taken into account. The stress distribution effect of the size of regular slotted type corrugated boxes in column stacked unit loads will be quantified and taken into account for the design of new pallets. This should help reduce wasted resources hence increasing sustainability factors and reducing production costs.

 

Objectives: The proposed project will investigate how unit load stresses are distributed across the top deck of block class pallets as a function of the package size of corrugated boxes when stacked in columns. Then it will determine how this effect affects the load carrying capacity of pallets to see where they are overdesigned as part of a proposed redesign to reduce waste and cost.

Nathan Gerber (M.S.)

"Investigation Into Pallets Being Manufactured, Recycled, and Landfilled Annually in the United States."

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Description: There are up to 2.4M pallets in circulation at any time in the United States and 92% of them are made of wood. The pallet industry is a rapidly changing and growing sector of the wood products market and the last time any real research was done into the industry’s estimated number of new pallets manufactured, pallets being repaired and reused, and pallets being recycled is over six years ago. Having this data available and always up-to-date would be useful to all pallet industry professionals in their day-to-day business making decisions.

Objectives: The proposed project studies, through market research, the current numbers of pallets being manufactured, reused, and recycled in the pallet industry. The scope of the study also includes new pallet production estimates, estimates of the recovered pallets, pallet sizes, lumber types, information on various production steps, and waste disposal or reuse.

Page Clayton (M.S.)

"Investigation into the Distribution of Stresses on the Top Surface of Stringer Class Pallets as a Function of Package Size and Pallet Stiffness."

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Description: The load carrying capacity of most pallets is very likely to be significantly higher then what is determined through current testing methods. The effects of package size and distribution on load bridging are not included in most current tests and pallets are overdesigned when these factors aren’t taken into account. The stress distribution effect of the size of regular slotted type corrugated boxes in column stacked unit loads will be quantified and taken into account for the design of new pallets. This should help reduce wasted resources hence increasing sustainability factors and reducing production costs.

 

Objectives: The proposed project will investigate how unit load stresses are distributed across the top deck of stringer class pallets as a function of the package size of corrugated boxes when stacked in columns. Then it will determine how this effect affects the load carrying capacity of pallets to see where they are overdesigned as part of a proposed redesign to reduce waste and cost.

Eduardo Molina (Ph.D)

"Development of a Finite Element Model to Predict the Deflection of a Stacked Unit Load of Corrugated Boxes."

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Description: Different types of unit loads can cause load bridging on pallets, which means that the weight is not distributed evenly across the pallet. Various factors including box size, aspect ratio, coefficient friction, number of layers, containment force, etc. influences the amount of load bridging. The investigation of the load bridging effect using physical testing is complex, expensive, and time consuming. Using finite element modeling would significantly increase the effectiveness of load bridging research.

Objectives: The proposed project will validate experimentally, in 2D and 3D, a finite modeling system for testing the interactions of packages causing load bridging. And, once validated it will be used to develop an adjustment factor to help apply the testing results of a pallet loaded using a uniform flexible load to a pallet loaded with corrugated boxes where load bridging occurs.

Nicolas Navarro (M.S.)

"Investigation Into the Deployment of Smart Sensors for Distribution Packaging Tracking."

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Description:

Nicolas’s research will focus on the deployment of smart sensors for distribution packaging. His research will help us create continuous supply chain visibility.

Internet of Things (IoT) start to become a widely used technology in in many aspects of our life from smart refrigerators to aerospace sensors. In the distribution packaging sector, obtaining data on the shock, vibration, and environmental conditions that the package experiences throughout the supply chain will enable us to create safer and more sustainable packaging solutions. Nicolas’s research will focus on reviewing the available technologies for the distribution packaging sector and identifying opportunities for further research.

Objectives:

Chandler Quesenberry (M.S.)

"Investigation into the Effect of Pallet Stiffness on the Strength of Corrugated Boxes."

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Description:

Chandler will investigate the effect of pallet stiffness of the strength of corrugated boxes. His research will help us increase and safety and optimize the cost of unit loads.

Historical research indicated the stiffness of pallets have a significant effect on the stress distribution on the top of the pallets which influences the strength of various packaging materials such as pails, bottles, and drums. However, the effect of pallet stiffness on the strength of corrugated boxes was only investigated for symmetric box loading conditions. Chandler’s research will focus on quantifying the effect pallet stiffness on the strength of asymmetrically loaded corrugated boxes.

 

Objectives:

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