Using X-ray diffraction, the crystallinity of packaging polymers and ingredients are easily determined and the miscibility of composite materials is also evaluated.
As an example of the practical importance of knowing the percent crystallinity of polymers, a major food company recently had problems with their plastic ketchup bottles. Some consumers noted that the ketchup bottles contained significantly less ketchup than specified on the label. The state authorities were notified and they verified that the ketchup was not up to specified levels. The ketchup bottles from this particular food company were removed from the store shelves and the company was fined.
It was later found that the plastic bottles were defective (due to a greater concentration of recyclates in the plastic) and were less crystalline that they should have been. The lower crystallinity of the bottle permitted the water in the ketchup to seep through to the outside (poor barrier resistance) and this led to the decrease in the weight of the ketchup inside the bottle.
Testing of the plastic bottles would have shown that the bottles were defective through the lower than desired percent crystallinity.
Package materials testing, as well as package evaluation and testing, are important parts of the research and development process. Testing helps ensure that new primary packaging materials and package designs are created specifically to handle real-world situations.
More than 30,000 people from 150 countries create and update standards through ASTM International, one of the world’s most respected standards development organizations. The high quality of ASTM International standards is driven by the expertise and judgment of members who represent industry, governments, academia, trade groups, consumers, and others. Their contributions are why ASTM International standards are known for high quality and market relevance across many industries. About 150 committees (with over 2,000 subcommittees) meet face-to-face and virtually, using tools like electronic balloting and online collaboration areas, to develop standards. ASTM International publishes those standards shortly thereafter
International Standards make things work. They give world-class specifications for products, services and systems, to ensure quality, safety and efficiency. They are instrumental in facilitating international trade. ISO has published 22204 International Standards and related documents, covering almost every industry, from technology, to food safety, to agriculture and healthcare. ISO International Standards impact everyone, everywhere. ISO is an independent, non-governmental international organization with a membership of 161 national standards bodies. Through its members, it brings together experts to share knowledge and develop voluntary, consensus-based, market relevant International Standards that support innovation and provide solutions to global challenges.
The International Safe Transit Association (ISTA) is a global alliance of shippers, carriers, suppliers, testing laboratories, and educational and research institutions focused on the specific concerns of transport packaging. We help our members control costs, damage, and resources during the distribution of packaged-products by creating and publishing laboratory preshipment testing Procedures, certifying Packaging Laboratories, certifying Packaging Laboratory Professionals, certifying packaged-products and providing education, training, and support.