CORRUGATED PACKAGING

Box Compression Tests

Corrugated boxes are ubiquitous in almost all industries around the world. Corrugated boxes are used to store and/or ship products from socks to artichokes to engines and these boxes experience many types of compression forces throughout their normal use and existence.

Compression tests are conducted on single or stacked, empty or filled, corrugated containers. These tests evaluate the performance of the corrugated packaging to withstand a constant load or to determine maximum strength under a constant rate of loading. Compression testing allows us to study the effects of various board mediums, closures, interior partitions, liners, and other design variables on compressive strength performance.

Compression testing on boxes generally is done by adding a certain amount of weight for a certain amount of time to the top of the box, and testing the box’s strength both before and after holding up to the compression forces. Boxes that can withstand high compression forces will do better at protecting their product.

Package testing and materials testing are important parts of the research and development process. Testing helps ensure that all corrugated board and new package designs are created specifically to handle real-world situations.

Standards:

ASTM D4577
ASTM D642
ISO 4180
TAPPI 804

ASTM D4577 – 05(2010): Standard Test Method for Compression Resistance of a Container Under Constant Load

This test method is designed to determine the resistance of a shipping container to a vertically applied constant load for either a specified time or to failure. The test method may also be used for palletized or unitized load configurations. In the distribution system for many products there is a phase wherein the packaged product may be stored for a period of time in a manner such that one or more containers are superimposed one upon the other. The bottom package is thus continually stressed with a constant load. This test method subjects a container, empty or filled, to a predetermined static load, and to specified atmospheric conditions, if required.

ASTM D642 – 15: Standard Test Method for Determining Compressive Resistance of Shipping Containers, Components, and Unit Loads

This test method covers compression tests on shipping containers or components, or both. Shipping containers may be tested with or without contents. The procedure may be used for measuring the ability of the container to resist external compressive loads applied to its faces, to diagonally opposite edges, or to corners. This test method covers testing of multiple containers or unit loads, in addition to individual shipping containers, components, materials, or combination thereof.

ISO 4180:2009 Packaging – Complete, filled transport packages – General rules for the compilation of performance test schedules

This International Standard establishes general rules to be used for the compilation of performance test schedules for complete, filled transport packages intended for use within any distribution system – except for packages used for dangerous goods. For a known distribution environment with experimental data available, this provides guidelines for the compilation of appropriate test schedules. For an unknown distribution environment, this provides test schedules in dependence of the test specimen mass and forecast destination. It also gives the factors to be considered in assessing the criteria of acceptance of such packages after they have been subjected to a package performance test schedule.

TAPPI 804: Compression test of fiberboard shipping containers

This method is used for measuring the ability of corrugated or solid fiber shipping containers to resist external compressive forces. The method may be applied in a number of ways. For quality studies, it is usually desirable to test the empty container. For the study of compression resistance where inner packing is involved, tests may be made with the interior packing in place. If overall performance is to be studied, the test may be conducted with the container loaded with its contents and all inner packing. The container may be positioned so as to test the compressive resistance in a direction that is relevant to the container’s use – including top-to-bottom, end-to-end, or side-to-side.

Equipment:

Lansmont Squeezer

Payload Capacity: 5,000lb
Plate Size: 30in x 30in
Load Applicator: fixed plate
Maximum Package Height: 3 feet